Institute of Complex Medical Engineering (ICME)

1. Prof.Li-Hai Tan, Shenzhen University, China

  • Title: Brain Plasticity and Language Processing
  • Absrtact: Neuroplasticity refers to the brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural pathways due to changes in behavior, cognition, and environment. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, recent neuroscience research indicates that experience can quickly change both the human adult brain's physical structure(anatomy) and functional organization(physiology). In this talk I will summarize structural and functional MRI evidence from the studies of language to show that how the anatomical and functional networks of the normal adult brains change in response to language learning. Evidence from the brain-damaged patients will also be reviewed, suggest ing that cortical dynamics adjust their activities to compensate for injury and disease. The promises and challenges of translating basic neuroimaging research into clinical practice require us to carefully investigate individual- and culture-related neuroplasticity in order to preserve critical life skills such as language and motor for patients after the neurosurgery.

2. Prof. Koichi Hirata, Dokkyo Medical University, Japan

  • Title: Diagnosis and treatment approaches in restless legs syndrome
  • Absrtact: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by a complaint of a strong, nearly irresistible urge to move the limbs. This urge to move is often but not always accompanied by other uncomfortable sensations felt deep inside the limbs or by a feeling that is simply difficult or impossible to describe. RLS is a clinically important, common disease, which should be early and adequately diagnosed and then treated. Since there have been no clinical biomarkers or methodologies which inevitably contribute to a correct diagnosis of RLS, Criteria A1-3 specify the necessary characteristics of the RLS sensations: worse at rest, better with movement, and predominant occurrence in the evening or night. The separation of worsening at rest (criterion A1) from worsening in the evening/night (criterion A3) is based on circadian rhythm studies that show an increase at night, independent of activity level. RLS must be differentiated from other conditions that can mimic RLS (criterion B). Clinically significant RLS is defined by RLS symptoms causing substantial distress, sleep disturbance, or impairment of function (criterion C). When applying the criteria, RLS mimics should be ruled out and comorbid diseases should be taken into account. Although the origin and pathogenesis of RLS remain underinvestigation, brain iron insufficiency has been demonstrated in imaging and cerebrospinal fluid studies in RLS patients. In contrast, the results of neuroimaging studies evaluating brain dopaminergic functions in RLS patients have yieled inconclusive results, although involvement of the A11 hypothalamus is thought to cause impaired dopaminergic modulation to the dorsal horn and the intermediolateral nucleus, resulting in leg restlessness. The symptoms of RLS can be managed effectively by treatment. The pathophysiology of primary RLS is only partly understood, but a strong association with brain iron deficiency possibly resulting in impaired dopaminergic function has been recognized. Dopamine agonists are the mainstay of RLS treatment, but other therapies, including gabapentin, benzodiazepines, and low-potency opioids, are also commonly employed. Recent evidence-based guidelines recommend dopamine agonists or alpha-2-delta ligands are the first line treatment for RLS, depending on the patient’s clinical background, comorbidity and severity of the symptoms. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiology, comorbidies, differential diagnosis and novel treatment of RLS. In this presentation, we also talk about role of technology as the clinical biomarkers or methodologies.

International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering (CME 2015)

General Chair:
Koji Abe, MD, PhD
Professor and Chairman Deartment of Neurology Okayama University Medical School 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan

TEL: +81-86-235-7362;
FAX: +81-86-235-7368

E-mail:
CME2015@biolab.mech.okayama-u.ac.jp

Institute of Complex Medical Engineering (ICME)

Office Address:
3-1-1 Tsushimanaka, Kitaku, Okayama City, Okayama 700-8530 Japan

Tel: +81-86-251-8052
Fax: +81-86-251-8266

Email:
icme@biolab.mech.okayama-u.ac.jp

Homepage: http://frontier.mech.okayama-u.ac.jp/
ICME/